With an unprecedented number of new investigational agents and companies in immuno-oncology (IO), it has been difficult to track and understand the current IO agents in clinical development and the clinical trials testing these agents. The Clinical Accelerator team presents an unbiased, neutral, scientifically curated, and timely updated analysis based on information collected from numerous trusted and publicly available sources. We hope to inform the cancer community as they seek to strive for efficiencies and innovation while avoiding duplication. For further detailed analysis, see our paper in Annals of Oncology.
The overview of 2,004 IO agents. 6 classes of IO agents are identified on the basis of different mechanisms of actions. Unspecified tumor associated antigen (Unspecified TAA) is defined as the target of unspecified antigens from either individual patients or cell lines. In this sense, therapies against this target mainly consist of cell line-based vaccines, autologous tumor vaccines, autologous DC vaccines, and tumor infiltrating T cell therapies (TIL). Personalization is defined as the targets discovered by algorithm-based approaches from, e.g., the individual patients’ tumor samples or blood circulating DNA.
Timeline of Anti-PD-1/L1 Antibody Approvals by the FDA.
The overview of 164 anti-PD-1/L1 agents currently in development, 50 of which are in clinical stages.
The landscape of CAR-T cell therapy. China leads the total number of clinical-stage CAR-T cell therapies, whereas US has the largest number of pre-clinical agents.
Analysis of PD-1/L1 combination trial types. The majority of combination trials focus on the 5 approved agents. Combination with other IO agents, targeted therapies, and chemotherapies are the top common strategies.
The rapid increase of new anti-PD-1/L1 combination trials in the past 5 years. The size of the bubble correlates to the target enrollment of patients. Multiple bubbles of the same color represent multiple cancer types that are being tested in these trials.
The landscape analysis of targets of anti-PD-1/L1 combination trials. The size of the bubble correlates to the number of trials. Number of trials using common combo strategies: Anti-CTLA-4 agents (251); Chemotherapies (170); Radiotherapies (64); Anti-VEGFA agents (43); Chemoradiotherapy combos (42).
Comparison of total trial numbers and target enrollment between industry-sponsored and non-industry-sponsored anti-PD-1/L1 combination trials.
Comparison of average target enrollment between trials with different sponsorship of the anti-PD-1/L1 combination trials.